Cheryl’s birthday – solution

(Read the problem here)

 

To get conclusion of the problem, we have three important information from Albert and Bernard’s conversation:

  1. Albert knows that Bernard does not know
  2. Bernard knows the answer after point 1 is known
  3. Albert knows the answer after point 2 is known

 

So here we have initial options:

May 15           May 16           May 19

Jun 17            Jun 18

Jul 14              Jul 16

Aug 14            Aug 15            Aug 17

 

Albert at first sure that Bernard does not know the answer. So Albert sure that Bernard was told neither 19 nor 18. It means Albert was not told May or June.

May 15           May 16           May 19

Jun 17            Jun 18           

Jul 14              Jul 16

Aug 14             Aug 15           Aug 17

 

Having told that, Bernard knows the answer. It means he got a unique day of the remaining. Therefore we can eliminate all both 14.

May 15           May 16           May 19

Jun 17            Jun 18           

Jul 14              Jul 16

Aug 14            Aug 15            Aug 17

 

Lastly, it makes Albert knows the answer also. So the only possible reason is Albert was told that Cheryl’s birthday is July.

May 15           May 16           May 19

Jun 17            Jun 18           

Jul 14              Jul 16

Aug 14            Aug 15            Aug 17

 

 

Therefore, Cheryl’s birthday is July 16.

 

Blue or red? – solution

(Read the problem here)

 

There are 13 blue balls.

If we take only one blue ball, the ball will be back to the box.

If we take two blu balls, both will be out from the box.

It means blue balls can not get out alone. Means there always at least one blue ball in the box.

So the remaining ball must be blue.

 

 

Heaven or hell – solution

(Read the problem here)

 

The woman should ask to anyone of them “Am I a woman?”

If the guard say “Yes”, then she just go to the door, but if the guard say “No”, then she choose the other door.

 

(…just for fun :))

Four captives – solution

(Read the problem here)

 

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D and C can not see anyone, so it’s impossible for them to have any clue.

A can see B and C. Seeing B and C’s hat, A still not getting the answer, so A can not say anything.

B only can see C. But if B has the same colour as C, A must have know the answer and shout it already, but A don’t.

With this fact, B knows that A can’t know the answer only by seeing B and C, means B and C have different colour. Seeing C’s hat is red, B can conclude that B’s had is blue. So B can give the answer.

 

 

Cheryl’s Birthday part 2 – solution

In the annoying Cheryl’s birthday problem part 2 (go here if you haven’t read it), we have additional member; David. So it’s getting more complex than the previous one.

 

And here is my answer: (apologize ahead for grammatical errors)

 

To get the conclusion of the problem, we have seven important points from the conversation:

  1. Albert knows that Bernard does not know
  2. Bernard still does not know even after point 1 is known
  3. Albert still does not know even after point 2 is known
  4. Albert now knows that David does not know
  5. David knows the month after point 4 is known, but not before
  6. Bernard knows the answer after point 4 is known, but not before
  7. David now knows the answer

 

As what we did in the previous Cheryl’s problem, we also can do elimination to solve this.

 

From the initial options:

May 15                       May 16                       May 19

Jun 17                        Jun 18                        Jun 20                        Jun 22

Jul 15                          Jul 16

Aug 14                        Aug 20                        Aug 22

Sep 14                        Sep 16                          Sep 17                        Sep 20

we can eliminate al May and June options because if Albert got May or June, he would not sure that Bernard does not know the answer, since both May and June has unique day; 19 and 18 respectively.

May 15                       May 16                       May 19

Jun 17                        Jun 18                        Jun 20                        Jun 22

Jul 15                          Jul 16

Aug 14                        Aug 20                        Aug 22

Sep 14                        Sep 16                          Sep 17                        Sep 20

But then Bernard still does not know the answer. Means he got a day that is not unique even after the elimination. Therefore we can eliminate the remaining unique days:

May 15                       May 16                       May 19

Jun 17                        Jun 18                        Jun 20                        Jun 22

Jul 15                          Jul 16

Aug 14                        Aug 20                        Aug 22

Sep 14                        Sep 16                          Sep 17                        Sep 20

Then, Albert still does not know the answer. Had he has July, he must have known the answer.

May 15                       May 16                       May 19

Jun 17                        Jun 18                        Jun 20                        Jun 22

Jul 15                          Jul 16

Aug 14                        Aug 20                        Aug 22

Sep 14                        Sep 16                          Sep 17                        Sep 20

Albert now knows that David does not know. Why? Had he has August, he would not be sure, because David could have Sep 14 or Sep 20 and know the answer. So Albert must have been told that the month is September.

May 15                       May 16                       May 19

Jun 17                        Jun 18                        Jun 20                        Jun 22

Jul 15                          Jul 16

Aug 14                        Aug 20                        Aug 22

Sep 14                        Sep 16                          Sep 17                        Sep 20

Bernard knows the answer after point 4 revealed, and not before. Had he been told 16, he would have known the answer after point 3 is known.

May 15                       May 16                       May 19

Jun 17                        Jun 18                        Jun 20                        Jun 22

Jul 15                          Jul 16

Aug 14                        Aug 20                        Aug 22

Sep 14                        Sep 16                          Sep 17                        Sep 20

Finally, David now knows the answer. So he has either 14 or 20. Let say he has 14 then it must be Aug 14. But let see again point 5. Had he has Aug 14, he must had known the correct month after point 3 revealed. So Aug 14 is impossible and so 14. (Also, for the same reason as Aug 14, Aug 20 is impossible.) So he got 20 means 20 is not the correct date.

May 15                       May 16                       May 19

Jun 17                        Jun 18                        Jun 20                        Jun 22

Jul 15                          Jul 16

Aug 14                        Aug 20                        Aug 22

Sep 14                        Sep 16                          Sep 17                        Sep 20

And yay, we got the answer: Cheryl’s birthday is Sep 14 and Cheryl told David Jun 20.

 

Please Cheryl, just say that you don’t want to invite them to your birthday party. It is less cruel.

 

(Anyway, I hope the name of the person who made this problem is not Cheryl, because I respect her/him)

 

 

 

Cheryl’s Birthday part 2

Seriously, Cheryl is so annoying. Not only she plays hard to get, she changes her birthday!

Ok, this is another puzzle about Cheryl’s birthday. There’s an additional member here; David.

 

Albert, Bernard, and David just became friends with Cheryl, and they want to know when her birthday is. Cheryl gives them a list of 16 possible dates.

May 15, May 16, May 19
Jun 17, Jun 18, Jun 20, Jun 22,
Jul 15, Jul 15
Aug 14, Aug 20, Aug 22,
Sep 14, Sep 16, Sep 17, Sep 20

Cheryl tells Albert and Bernard separately the month and the day of her birthday, respectively. She then choses one particular date from the list and tells David, and makes it known to all that the chosen date has a different day and month from her birthday.

Albert: I don’t know when Cheryl’s birthday is, but I know that Bernard does not know too.
Bernard: I did not know when Cheryl’s birthday is. Having said that, I am sure David still does not know too.
David: I knew neither the day nor the month right before Albert said his last sentence, but after he did, now I know what month it is.
Bernard: I did not know when Cheryl’s birthday is right before Albert said his last sentence, but after he did, now I know when Cheryl’s birthday is.
David: Then I also know when Cheryl’s birthday is.
Albert: Now I know too.

So when is Cheryl’s birthday? What date did Cheryl tell David?

 

note: last sentence refers to “Having said that, I am sure David still does not know too.”

 

 

Solution →
(better not open this if you don’t have any answers yet)

 

 

 

 

 

Four captives

Andy, Brian, Celline, and Drake were captivated by a very bad person, and were positioned as what can be seen in the picture below. All of them face a wall. Each of them was given a hat. No one of the four knows the colour of the hat that is wore by themselves, but they know that there are 2 red and 2 blue coloured hats.

The bad person told them that one of them have to name the colour of the hat him/herself wear. There’s only one chance. If the answer is wrong, all of them will be killed.

1970554_10152096251403661_939620311_n

To save all of them who needs to give the answer and why?

 

Solution →
(better not open this if you don’t have any answers yet)